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Testing Applications

Measuring Uncertainty - Force Testing Made Easy

Uncertainty is among the many variables that need to be considered when performing force testing. Uncertainty results from a combination of factors, including errors that may affect the outcome of tests. And, while many errors may be cumulative, as long as the variables are predictable, the test measurements should still be correct.Without going into complex uncertainty calculations, the following article looks at common force testing situations and offers practical examples of how to clarify force testing uncertainty. A body scale, for example, indicates weight with an accuracy of ±1 pound. If a person weighs 100 pounds, then the true weight...

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How to Test Packaging?

Packaging comes in many shapes and is made from a variety of materials depending on the product it is designed to protect. That may include bottles for beverages, sealed bags to keep food fresh, or biomedical packaging designed to keep a product sterile. To determine whether or not the packaging is able to perform the desired function each packaging type requires an array of material tests.Water, soda, and juice bottles, for example, come in a variety of shapes and sizes and are subjected to a range of material tests such as structural rigidity to make certain they won’t rupture when filled or fold...

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5 Key Factors in Choosing a Material Tester

Material tester, friction tester, polymer tester, adhesiveness tester. Material testing machines go by many names. When companies need to test their products, the market for material testing machines can be a difficult jungle to navigate in.This is what you should consider before purchasing the product:1) QualityThe combination of the quality of the material tester and the material testing software is what you need to be aware of when buying a machine that needs to perform stable and reliable tests at all times. While the material tester performs the test the material testing software calculates and stores the results of your tests. It can also...

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Ductility Testing

Ductility involves determining the extent by which a material can withstand plastic deformation without rupture. A bend test for ductility provides a simple way to evaluate the quality of materials by their ability to resist cracking or other surface irregularities during one continuous bend. With a ductile fracture, there is a considerable amount of plastic deformation prior to failure. Ductility is extremely important in metalworking, as materials that crack or break under stress cannot be manipulated using processes for metal forming, such as hammering, rolling, and drawing. Malleable materials can be formed using stamping or pressing, whereas brittle metals and...

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Compression Testing

Compression testing is used to determine compression strength, usually applied to materials of high compression but low tensile strength, in which the specimen is subjected to increasing compressive forces until failure occurs. Compression tests are used to determine the material behavior under a load. The maximum stress a material can maintain during a defined time period under a load (constant or progressive) is determined. A compression test determines behavior of materials under crushing loads. The specimen is compressed and deformation at various loads is recorded. Compressive stress and strain are calculated and plotted as a stress-strain diagram which is used...

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Creep Testing

Creep is defined as high temperature progressive deformation at constant stress. "High temperature" is a relative term dependent upon the materials involved. Creep rates are used in evaluating materials for, gas turbines, jet engines, boilers, ovens, or any application that involves high temperatures under load. Understanding high temperature behavior of metals is useful in designing failure resistant systems.  The rate at which a sample material is deformed to stress when subjected to a constant temperature is known as the creep rate. Creep usually occurs at higher temperatures therefore it is common for this type of testing to be performed with...

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Coefficient of Friction Testing

Coefficient of friction testing measures the ease with which two surfaces in contact are able to slide past one another. There are two different values associated with the coefficient of friction – static and kinetic. Static friction must be overcome in order to initialize motion between the two surfaces, and kinetic friction is the resistance to sliding once the surfaces are in relative motion. Coefficient of Friction (COF) is the maximum value of the frictional force divided by the normal force. Because surface cleanliness is so important to gathering reliable data, appropriate measures must be taken to ensure freedom from...

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Bending/Flexure Testing

As the demand for high quality and reliable components and materials increases, flexural or bending tests have become an important test method in both the manufacturing process and research and development to define a material’s ability to resist deformation under load. A component’s or material’s flexural strength provides high level of understanding into the modulus of elasticity in bending, flexural stress and flexural strain. Bend testing measures the ductility of materials. Bending tests may involve taking the sample material to a specific limit and determining the load measurement and its relationship to a load specification (pass/fail). This is known as...

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Adhesion/Adhesives Testing

Adhesion is the bond strength measurement of a coating to a substrate. Many physical, mechanical and chemical forces come into play when an adhesive is bonded to an item or surface and these forces may have an effect on each other. Before a product can be used these effects need to be tested.The use of structural adhesives has increased as more manufacturers realize their advantages compared to other types of joining techniques. The increased use of these adhesives, particularly where safety is important, necessitates the evaluation of any possible decrease in performance that may occur when glued joints are subjected...

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Bond Strength Testing

Bond strength is the amount of adhesion between bonded surfaces measured in terms of the stress required to separate a layer of material from the base to which it is bonded.Bond strength generally involves determining the stress required to rupture a bond formed by an adhesive between two metal blocks. Often, the test involves the measurement of the shear and flexural bond strength of a bonding agent or a comparison of bonding agents under varying environmental conditions. The test may compare the fractured surface produced to failure analysis results within the adhesive inter-phase region.The increased use of these adhesives in...

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De-lamination Strength Testing

De-lamination is the separation of the layers in a laminate. Laminate is a sheet of material that has been created by stacking thin layers, or plies, and bonding them together. De-lamination can occur locally, in a small area of the laminate, or it can affect the entire laminate. In laminated materials, repeated cyclic stresses, impact, and so on can cause layers to separate, forming a mica-like structure of separate layers, with significant loss of mechanical toughness. A wide range of structural applications are possible; however, amongst other considerations the performance of these materials under crash and impact loading is a...

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